This week was all about adding the final touches & finalizing the model. I had to face one more of my fears & wade through the unknown in terms of Drapery. I managed to get my hands on a book “Dynamic Wrinkles & Drapery” by Burne Hogarth.

This book is very easy to read & understand. It explains all the aspects of why & how drapery works & various ways to approach them. There are tons & tons of illustrations which makes understanding the concepts much easier.

In a nutshell some of the salient points were:

  1. The body doesn’t produce unlimited movements as can be sometimes thought, but in fact it’s 4 fundamental types of movements : extending, bending, twisting & rotating.
  2. When these 4 basic movements act on our clothing, which have their own weight, texture, along with natural external forces such as weather, gravity etc, it produces wrinkles & folds. These wrinkles are an expressive indication of the forces of action.
  3. Wrinkles are always generated from an anchor point. These are essentially the points where the tension is the greatest as the clothing clings onto the body at these points.
  4. Anchor points are normally found in seams or tight spots such as the armpits, the collar, the inner elbow, waist, knees etc.
  5. Anchor points work in the same fashion where facial wrinkles are concerned. Eg: a smile causes lift of the mouth corners & an apple-shaped compression of the upper cheek muscle.
  6. There are various wrinkle pattern systems, but they can be largely categorized into one of the bellow:
  • Thrust wrinkles, are the most common types of wrinkles seen & are formed when the clothing has direct thrusts generated such as walking, stretching etc. When arms & legs extend outward from the anchor points, the thrust creates wrinkles along the line of force called thrust wrinkles.

Thrust wrinkles

  • Bend wrinkles, are a type of direct thrust wrinkle & are formed when arms & legs are bent along the elbows & knees.

Bend Wrinkles

  • Crossing Wrinkles, are one of the most complex & subtle wrinkle pattern systems. These are normally formed on loose materials on active body forms. The intersection of two competing wrinkle patterns that meet while travelling in opposite directions causes this form of wrinkles.

Crossing Wrinkles

  • Compression Wrinkles, are very similar to crossing wrinkles in terms of the forces generating them emanate from 2 different directions, these wrinkles also form zig- zag patterns & these wrinkles have both big & small wrinkles inter-laced. The point of difference is the origin of this wrinkle pattern system is due to the crush force applied. Since the crush force is the reason behind this system, the wrinkle patterns formed are contracting & inwards towards the source, unlike the crossing wrinkles which are outward & extensions.

Compression wrinkles

  • Fragmentation Wrinkles, is a complex system of patterns. They occur the action is uncertain, indecisive or inconsistent. This leads to the decay of other wrinkle systems giving rise to the fragmentation wrinkle system. This system also sometimes arises out of impurities in the fabric due to its prolonged wear leading to accumulation of dirt, sweat, grime, etc. Hence, the regular kinetic forces work in a fractured manner.

Fragmentation Wrinkles

  • Swag & Hanging wrinkles, are very commonly seen on stationary forms by the force of gravity. It is made up of curved organ-pipe folds curved upwards & sagging downward due to the force of gravity held up by 2 point suspension anchors.

Swah & Hanging wrinkles

  • Trap & Closure wrinkles, are a system of patterns that are created when an opposing action traps another wrinkle system from completing it’s action.

Trap & Closure wrinkles

  • Flying wrinkles, are one of the most interesting pattern systems. They convey the forces in action. They can convey the wind forces in the forms of the weaves formed. They can convey if a material is light or dense based on the extent of the effects of the forces etc.

Flying wrinkles

  • Passive, inert & lying wrinkles, usually occur on clothes on a horizontal surface with the force of gravity primarily acting on them. If the supporting surface changes, the wrinkle system will show the effect of the changes.

Swah & Hanging wrinkles


Dynamic wrinkles & drapery, Hogarth, B. (n.d.).